Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors for sports injuries (2023)

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Homework 1

What are external risk factors?

An extrinsic factor is the variables that you cannot control to avoid injury. Therefore, an external risk factor is an injury that cannot be blamed, something that occurs naturally or that led to the injury. The category of extrinsic risk factors that you cannot control are the following five, namely training, improper techniques, environmental factors, clothing, footwear, and equipment, and finally safety hazards.

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Examples of extrinsic factors could be coaching

A coach can show a lack of communication skills, leadership, and methods between himself and his players, preventing a lack of confidence and his players not being as confident in training and possibly using the wrong training method and getting injured in the process. . They can be classified as extrinsic risk factors.

Clothes, shoes and equipment.

Wearing the wrong outfit for your sport can lead to serious injuries. For example if you play tennis you would wear rugby/soccer shoes, if you did you would slip everywhere as you don't have enough grip to deal with the tennis shoe surface of the tennis court. It is always important to wear the proper uniform that will protect you for your sport. If you don't wear the right clothing for your sport and you injure yourself by not wearing something you should cover up, you could end up injuring yourself for a long time.


Environmental factors can cause sports injuries as a person can only train under the sun and on a hard field, but when the day of a game arrives and it is raining or snowing on a muggy field, that person will not get used to the conditions that they mean you can make the person behave differently, which can lead to injury, or allow the person to do the same things they normally do, which not only has a positive but also a negative impact on the person's performance and can cause a sports injury that you can do do it yourself

security risk

Safety hazards are set up to try to reduce the risk of injury. A risk assessment should be done prior to activity on a playing field, as there may be something on the field that could injure a person, if the risk assessment has not been carried out, as others have said, a player may attempt a sliding tackle. and still get a very big and deep cut on your leg as you could slip on the grass or anything else with sharp edges so there is a risk. Security risks need to be assessed and implemented.

This can affect you and your team as you are down a man and if one of these injuries happens to you on the list it could happen to all of your teammates which would be a huge blow to your team if you are okay , since this is not the case. . be very reliable.

What are intrinsic risk factors?

An intrinsic risk factor is a risk or strength of the organism. These would be internal forces, that is, stresses in the body. Intrinsic factors are variables that can protect you from injury. There are six different variables that fall into the category of intrinsic factors, and they are joint flexibility and laxity, diet, leg length discrepancies, fitness level, age, and finally weight and the height.

The following intrinsic examples are flexibility:

Flexibility:You can cause a sports injury by trying to overstretch a muscle or perform a movement that requires loose joints. For example, in soccer, the most common injury is hamstring hyperextension, as players overstretch the muscles when running, eventually leading to overextension of a leg muscle.

Nutrition:It can cause a sports injury if a player doesn't have enough energy and maybe makes silly mistakes that can result in him or someone else getting injured. For example, the soccer player needs to have enough energy to perform well in a match and have a good chain all the time, if he does not have adequate energy to play his sport, he will not be able to play as well as he could and could end up with an injury.

Training level:It can lead to a sports injury because if someone has a low level of fitness they are considered to be out of shape and in sports you need to have a good level of fitness to compete in your sport. The lower your fitness level, the more tired you will feel and keep pushing yourself, which can prevent further injury. For example, when a soccer player is in poor physical condition, he gets tired and is asked to stop because he doesn't have enough energy to keep up with the soccer game.

Eras: can cause a sports injury with age due to its bone strength. The bones weaken at the age of 25, it is certain that the 25 year old would perform better because he would be better prepared and have the right attitude to play the sport.

weight and height: It can lead to injury in your sport because when a player is overweight, it puts extra stress on their muscles. The more overweight you are, the harder it is to keep up with your sport.

exercise 2

What are preventive measures?

Preventive measures mean that these are things you can do to avoid getting hurt. For example, before the start of a soccer game, the referee must inspect the field to make sure the grass is in good condition to look for other things that could hurt the soccer player during the game.

However, during the game, soccer players must wear the proper equipment to protect themselves during the game. When you play soccer, you have to wear washers to avoid getting kicked in the knee.

Trainers need to be able to keep you motivated and relaxed and not stress you out with complicated workouts, workouts need to be well planned and they need to know how the training will work. The coach or manager must have a basic understanding of what his players are working on, he must have basic information about what their fitness level is, for example, if a soccer player has a low level of fitness. The trainer should get him to do some cardio at the gym before forcing him to do a lot of walking.

(Video) Sports injuries - extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors

To avoid soccer injuries, the ball used in a soccer match or training session must have the correct air pressure, if the air pressure is too high it will be very difficult to kick the ball and may cause injury the player who is using the ball. ball kicks

Which people are important in risk prevention for your athletes?

When it comes to playing football, there are many people who can help you avoid getting injured while playing football itself, and during training, the coach can help you and advise you not to do certain movements because you may get injured, for example, playing football if you do. a Do not close your eyes when attempting to headbutt, otherwise you may be headbutted, pushed by someone else, lose your balance and fall awkwardly.

In a soccer game a physiotherapist can help you or tell you to avoid certain things so as not to hurt yourself and the same goes for a referee, he will do the same and give you advice.

What types of devices or procedures does your sport use to prevent sports injuries?

In soccer you have to use the correct cleats, that means you can only use a cleat with the correct cleats on the cleat. The soccer pin should be a mix of metal and plastic at the same time, because it should prevent you from slipping and leaving holes in the soccer field, because if you leave holes in the field and you trip over the hole, you may get hurt. , that's why you wear the right cleats for a soccer game.

Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors for sports injuries (1)

In soccer, players should wear proper shin guards because they need to protect their shins, but you should wear proper shin guards because you need to cover your shin.

If you're not wearing shin guards, there's a chance you'll get a small bruise on your shin, and if you're badly injured from not wearing shin guards, it's probably a broken piece, the other piece of equipment.

If you don't wear the correct cleats in game, you risk landing badly on your ankle or injuring your ankle as it doesn't have enough grip to hold itself up on the soccer field.

Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors for sports injuries (2)

How do they help prevent sports injuries?

Shin pads:In soccer, shin guards protect your shins and prevent you from getting hurt when you kick your shins. This is because the opponent you are tackling sometimes loses the ball and may end up hitting you in the shins, which would hurt them, so shin guards are there to protect you from injury or serious injury.

Goalkeeper gloves:In soccer, goalkeepers must wear soccer gloves because when someone hits a ball hard, the goalkeeper must have metal plates behind each fingertip of the gloves to prevent them from bending the fingers backwards as they this can seriously injure them and even cause them to dislocate their fingers if they are not wearing gloves.

soccer shoes: Soccer players need to wear the correct cleats with the correct cleats, if they wear the correct cleats they will have enough grip on the field and they won't slide everywhere; However, if they were the wrong pins, they could be injured as they could slip anywhere and injure themselves in the process. However, they could hurt the other opponent by having the wrong pins, which doesn't work very well in-game.

task 3

If an athlete sprains their ankle during a tennis match, this would be classified as an acute injury, but since it occurred on a sudden impact, it would also be classified as an extrinsic factor. Physiologically, the athlete who has just sprained their ankle will not be able to walk or move their ankle because it has just sprained. However, it would swell and he would be in great pain. There would be severe redness around the ankle due to dilated blood vessels due to blood flow.

All physiological responses depend on how the person reacts to or deals with the injury. Some injuries cause a lot of problems for the person and they are not mentally strong enough without stressing about it. The athlete may be afraid that the same thing will happen to him again, he will be upset that he will not be able to play as well as he did during the injury or shortly after recovery. If the athlete sprains their ankle during a competition they will experience stress and anxiety, feelings will increase as the progress of the injury will worry the athlete as the athlete may be away for a long time and not know when they will return or if they will return to full form for work just as well as it did.

The athlete may not feel motivated to do the sport because they may have waited a long time to heal or recover from their injury, some of the athlete may suffer from depression because they have constant mood swings, they may feel sad and angry with themselves or even someone else for causing this injury. Some athletes may be trying to get back into the sport as soon as possible because they want to be in the sport as soon as possible that is bad unless they are fully fit again and trying to compete in the sport there is so much potential their injury worse than suffering . Some of the athletes may not talk to their teammates or hide from society for a while because they want to be alone.

A sprain is classified as soft tissue damage; h ligament damage, a sudden twist, impact, or fall that causes the joint to move outside of its normal range of motion. Usually, a sprain occurs in the ankle, knee, wrist, and thumb. Damaged tissue occurs as soon as an injury occurs, which means that the body reacts in different ways, namely:

  • Primary damage responds to the mechanism. Signs and symptoms of this would be pain and swelling, pressure and friction can cause swelling associated with most sports injuries.
  • This is how most sports injuries are acquired

The return of athletes to competition after a sports injury is a key role for coaches and physiotherapists. Negative psychological reactions to injuries often result in a lack of commitment to the rehabilitation that they have undertaken for this program.

Psychological skills can be used during sports injury rehabilitation to motivate athletes to help them participate in the rehabilitation program, this is done to increase speed of recovery, manage anxiety, and increase their self-confidence. Also, the best people who can help with the athlete's injury would be a physical therapist and an athletic trainer.

However, those who have negative attitudes towards certain psychological skills are less likely to progress during rehabilitation. Therefore, receiving formal training would likely increase positive attitudes towards the use of psychological skills and increase the likelihood that they will be used during rehabilitation. In general, sports trainers and physiotherapists have a positive attitude towards the effectiveness of psychological skills to improve the rehabilitation process.

Some athletes may be angry about their injury, others may be angry about returning to training earlier, or some athletes may blame the coach for their injury. Some athletes may be isolated from their teammates as a result of physical therapists, which could allow them to miss games with the team and be banned from certain club/team activities.

However, a common problem with long-term injuries is that the athlete wants to return to competition early in their career, but is also unable to relieve stress through training because they are frustrated at not being able to play, some athletes may deny athletes Other than the injuries they have sustained do happen, and we will do everything we can to try and get back into the sport as quickly as possible. Some athletes may show signs of clinical depression, such as decreased energy levels, constant sadness, not finding motivation to exercise and get healthy as soon as possible, or recovering from injury.

When an athlete returns from injury his confidence drops there are a few reasons for that for example when a football player returns to the starting lineup after injury he will be cautious and cautious while playing because he doesn't want the happen again the same injury, so you won't be performing at your best right away, some athletes will show diminishing confidence in their own abilities. As the injury progresses, an athlete's motivation for the sport may decrease, they may lose touch with the good points that convinced them and kept them in the sport in the first place, this will hinder recovery and further reduce motivation.

Frustration – This frustration is more common with long-term injuries and is likely a result of the post-injury rehabilitation process. It could be frustration at having to do this, or frustration at the lack of progress. Lack of progress may be due to the process taking longer than expected, or simply the athlete's impatience and willingness to return to their sport.

Additionally, setting unrealistic goals for the athlete to achieve can leave the athlete frustrated when the goal is not reached. Depression After an injury, some athletes may show signs of depression, such as: B. Decreased energy, constant sadness, and withdrawal from social life. This may be because if they have been part of a team sport such as football, rugby or basketball, they know that all training is team-based, connected and has a rewarding social aspect.

(Video) OCR A Level PE - Sport Injuries Intrinsic Risk Factors

When an athlete is injured, they often need to train separately, often at different times than their teammates, depending on the severity of the injury. This removes the social aspect of the sport from it. Athletes may feel like they are missing out on events that occur during training, such as any training development.

Some athletes will react psychologically differently than other athletes, some athletes may react with the reaction of having the injury they just suffered or with the reaction of treating an injury now, some athletes show fear as a psychological reaction. Fear is a vital response to physical and emotional danger, but it is far from being a matter of life and death.

The return of athletes to competition after a sports injury is a key role for coaches and physiotherapists.

Negative psychological responses to injury often result in a lack of commitment to rehabilitation or lengthy rehabilitation programs, but recovery rates are prompting those who work with injured athletes to seek additional strategies to enhance the overall healing process. Psychological skills can be used during sports injury rehabilitation to motivate athletes to stick with rehabilitation, increase speed of recovery, manage anxiety, and regain confidence. Additionally, coaches and physical therapists can better educate athletes on the use of psychological interventions to enhance recovery.

However, people who are negative about certain psychological skills are less likely to use them during rehabilitation. Therefore, receiving formal training would likely increase positive attitudes towards the use of psychological skills and increase the likelihood that they will be used during rehabilitation. In general, sports trainers and physiotherapists have a positive attitude towards the effectiveness of psychological skills to improve the rehabilitation process.

Physiological response:

The physiological response is a physical response, such as swelling, that does not mentally affect an athlete. It is an instinctive reaction to an injury, in this situation it would be a sports injury. However, psychological response means that it is a mental response to injury, which means that different variables affect things like duration of injury and recovery. This is evident in an athlete's emotions, which may be known as anger, depression, motivation, and frustration. Sports injuries are generally unavoidable, but recent developments have been implemented to prevent sports injuries within reason. Athletes face injuries, regardless of their severity, and most of these injuries can occur at any time. In this section I will talk about the physiological responses to injuries in sports. The types of reactions to injuries that I will talk about are:

  • Primary reactions to injury
  • inflammatory phase
  • bleeding
  • die blooms phase
  • the maturity phase
  • scar

Primary reaction and inflammatory phase:

Primary responses to injury are rapid and direct as pain is experienced and inflammation occurs; However, these stages last between 1 and 5 days. This leads to the second stage. The second phase is the inflammatory phase, this phase usually lasts between three and five days. You will know that you have entered the inflammatory stage when you feel pain. This is due to increased pressure on the damaged area of ​​​​local nerve fibers. The second category that occurs in the inflammatory stage is swelling around the damaged area because bleeding from broken blood vessels and tissue fluids leaking from cells surround the area; After the swelling, the person notices that the area of ​​the lesion has increased redness or discoloration. This is due to vasodilation of undamaged blood vessels near the damaged area. The fourth phase is when there is heat around the injury caused by the dilation and circulation of the blood vessels around the injured area. Finally, the final stage is the loss of function. Loss of function only occurs when most of the mentioned stages are present. Loss of function can range from a reduced loss of function to a complete loss of function where the individual is unable to bear any weight on the injury.


Many people do not like to see blood, but bleeding is an important physiological response to any injury because red and white blood cells must surround the injured area for the full healing process to begin. However, the amount of bleeding determines the severity of the injury, for example, the more bleeding, the more severe the injury, the less bleeding, the less severe the injury.

Data proliferation phase:

The proliferative stage is also known as the healing stage and can last from two to five weeks as new tissue is deposited in the wound and a new network of capillaries and lymphatics develops to improve blood flow and drainage. There is also a rapid production of fibroblasts at the injury site, which become connective tissue and are responsible for repair (fibroblasts are the precursors of collagen).

The maturity phase:

The ripening phase is the last phase, which can last anywhere from three weeks to several months. In this phase, the damaged tissue gains strength and, as a result, there is an increase in structural organization.


Scar tissue forms as part of the remodeling process and must be mobilized to regain full tissue function.

There are three stages of injury and they are:

  • the stage of the theater
  • to the subacute phase
  • the chronic phase

In an acute phase

The acute stage is the stage immediately after the injury and can usually last up to a week. This is because the symptoms are most severe in the stage that occurs immediately after the injury. Some of the hallmarks of this stage are swelling, bruising, or visible redness that often occurs in the area, damage control begins, and pain occurs in this stage.

the lower level

The substage can last several weeks and is the stage that focuses on healing and repair. However, some characteristics of this phase are:

  • An increase in range of motion
  • slower reduction of pain and inflammation and swelling.
  • Injured and fragile tissue is present around the area of ​​injury.

The chronic phase:

This phase can last for months or years after the injury; in some cases, the patient may never fully heal and therefore remain in this phase. However, the patient only enters this stage when their recovery is incomplete or delayed, and this occurs around 6 to 7 weeks after the injury. However, characteristics of this phase include:

  • Pain can occur at the end of the range of motion.
  • Full range of motion may decrease
  • Connective tissue can shorten in the form of adhesion and fibrosis.

task 4

When playing soccer, the most common injury is a pulled or strained tendon. When these soccer players pull the tendons it is important that the referee or coach review them and apply the SALTAPS method which has a meaning for each letter and they are:

  • S is to stop the game if the player falls.
  • A is to ask the player what's wrong, how he's doing, or even ask him what type of injury has happened to him if he knows.
  • L is to look for signs when the player is injured either through facial expressions or even through posture.
  • T is meant to touch the wounded place, but you must touch it gently.
  • A is to check if the player can move, if he can't move he has to be taken out on a stretcher.
  • P stands for passive movement: if necessary, move the T-link/joint to its full extension and observe or analyze the player's reaction.
  • S stands for stand, if the player decides that he thinks he can continue to play and decides to recover from the injury, he should focus on the player if he thinks he will continue to get hurt.

However, you will know that sometimes you should not use some parts of the SALTAPS method as the player may not feel comfortable or be able to perform some of the methods they want.

The coach should immediately recognize which tendon the player has pulled or pulled, he would know the player could walk on a grade 1 tendon but it may take a while to get off the field, on a grade 2 he would start to limp instead of walking and notice that there would be a lot of swelling and pain around his tendon and finally a grade 3 hamstring strain is a serious injury involving a tear to half or all of the muscles if the player needed to be stripped immediately it is recommended the player to use crutches to help him walk.

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You know, if one of the players pulls their tendon, the first sign of the symptoms is that they start to feel the tendon and now, as a rescuer, they can't run. The first thing to do is to check if the player is ok and start asking him if the Achilles tendon is ok and once he has removed it, remove it and relax it. The advice given for an Achilles tendon strain is to rest the leg. What does resting the leg mean? It's not heaviness in the leg. Sometimes when the pain in the person's legs is very intense, the use of crutches is recommended, the swelling will be noticeable immediately and bruises will appear within 24 hours.

(Video) Sports Injuries Risk Factors

You should put an ice pack on your leg to reduce swelling and pain. It is recommended to do this every three hours for 20 to 40 minutes on some days. You should compress the leg with an elastic bandage around the leg to contain the swelling in the leg, and when you are lying down or sitting, you should put a pillow on the leg. A doctor or physical therapist will also tell you to do some exercises, but only the exercises that have been recommended to you.

In the boxing game, there are many ways the boxer gets injured/hurt in the boxing game, but the one I will talk about is a concussion, a concussion is caused by movement of the brain in the skull. This would result in a temporary loss of consciousness or function. In sports boxing, if the boxer has a concussion, it would be important for the referee to stop the fight immediately as well, because they don't want the boxer to have a brain hemorrhage, if the boxer still has a concussion, the referee doesn't want to. let the opponent keep hitting him on the head because the opponent could get brain damage, for example, a few weeks ago there was a boxing match between Chris Eubank Jnr and Nick Blackwell and Chris Eubank Jnr knocked out Nick Blackwell but the boxer had hemorrhaged in his head and he had to go into a coma because they wanted all the bleeding in his brain/skull to stop so he could recover without doing anything. But that's not the worst, Chris Eubanks Jnr's father once knocked out an opponent causing brain damage and incapacitating him so in the boxing game it's important that the referee sometimes ends the boxing match before time to protect yourself from the other opponents suffering these injuries. or worse.

The signs and symptoms of a boxer's concussion are that he begins to move slowly and is noticeable by his movements in the ring. This was intended to defiantly signal the referee to end the game if the boxing opponents are moving too poorly in the ring;

  • Brief unconsciousness after injury.
  • memory problems
  • double vision or blurred vision
  • headache
  • nausea or vomiting
  • Delayed response to stimuli.
  • Sensitive to light or noise.

As a trainer, you should be able to advise your boxer on how to improve his boxing skills or even avoid injury. inflict serious injuries on your opponents. An example I'll use for this is the boxing match when Chris Eubank knocked out Nick Blackwell, his trainer, and his dad was telling him not to hit him in the head and not to hit him on the body, but he decided don't ignore him and hit him. on his face, on his head, which eventually left him unconscious and bleeding from his head, requiring him to be immediately in a coma.

Once a person has been diagnosed with a concussion, the proper treatment they should undertake would be a few things I'll list in a moment:

  • You should apply a cold compress on the injury to reduce swelling.
  • Take paracetamol to control the pain.
  • Get plenty of rest and avoid stressful situations whenever possible.
  • Avoid any type of alcohol or recreational drugs.

Once the person has had a concussion you need to keep talking to them and make sure they don't fall asleep because if they do fall asleep the doctors don't know if they still have a concussion so they advise you not to. fall out. sleep more than 4 hours. After a boxer suffers a concussion, he should not participate in sports (boxing) for at least three weeks unless he has a doctor's permission to start training.

When playing rugby, you can dislocate your shoulder by becoming unconscious and falling to the ground, which will move the joint out of position and dislocate the shoulder. You can tell the rugby player has a dislocated shoulder by looking at his shoulder, a bone will stick out and he won't be able to move his arm or shoulder properly. There are many other signs and symptoms of a dislocated shoulder including:

  • swelling or bruising
  • Strong pain
  • inability to move the joint
  • Shoulder and clavicle tenderness

The rugby player would be immediately taken out and taken to hospital where they would need to put him back in place, after doing this he would have been instructed to wear a sling to prevent injury so he wouldn't put as much pressure on it. In order for it to return, it would be advisable to put ice on your shoulder to relieve the pain you are feeling. You would have to do it for 20 to 30 minutes every three to four hours, for 2 to 3 days, it will go away. It is recommended to take pain relievers that would also help alleviate the pain. pain you are feeling. They would have told him to go to physical therapy to do some exercises to help prepare him for the sport he is practicing. However, he can only do the exercises recommended by his doctor.

However, a dislocated shoulder cannot be prevented as it is classified as an external factor. There is nothing you can do to prevent a dislocated shoulder because you cannot prevent someone from grabbing you and dislocating your shoulder.

It takes a rugby player a long time to recover from a dislocated shoulder. It usually takes 6-8 weeks for the shoulder to work to full capacity to move the arm forward, backward, and to the sides. It takes a while to recover its full form.

After fully recovering from the injury, they would need to do some momentum-regaining exercises to get their shoulder used to the movements and feel comfortable before the rugby game starts.

In tennis, you'll most likely have an arm and leg injury, but I'm going to talk about a tennis player who injured his ankle from a sprained ankle. An ankle sprain is caused by the tough bands of tissue known as ligaments that surround the bones of the lower leg and connect them to the foot. Most ankle sprains occur when a person accidentally twists or rotates their ankle, which can stretch or tear the ligaments that hold the ankle bones and joints together. The signs and symptoms of an ankle sprain would be:

  • swelling
  • sensitivity
  • hematoma
  • Insect
  • Inability to put weight on the affected ankle.
  • skin discoloration
  • rigidity.

You have to go to the hospital after the injury and the doctor has to do some exercises to know which ligaments are damaged or torn. During training, the doctor may move the ankle in various ways to check how severe the ankle sprain is.

Proper treatment of your sprained ankle can prevent chronic pain and instability. You will need to follow the RICE procedure to properly treat your sprained ankle. The procedure for ankle sprain is:

  • Rest your ankle by not walking on it. If necessary, use crutches if you want to walk.
  • Ice to reduce swelling. Do not apply ice directly to the skin, it is recommended to use a thin cloth, e.g. B. to place a pillowcase between the ice pack and the skin.
  • Compression can help control swelling, as well as immobilize and support the injury.
  • Elevate your foot by tilting it back and resting it on your waist or heart as needed.

Treating a sprained ankle is important to speed recovery and prevent further problems. Your doctor can give you some tips and things you can do to treat your sprain while you heal. Recovery time for a sprained ankle is that you can start walking in one to two weeks, then you can use your ankle in 6 to 8 weeks, and you will probably be able to exercise again in 8 to 12 weeks. Once the person is back to full fitness, problems can arise as they will worry about spraining their ankle again, so they need time to get back into full rhythm in order to perform as before.

task 5

The first injury I'm going to talk about is a second degree thigh tear and the second injury I'm going to talk about is a dislocated shoulder.

A hamstring injury can usually be a strain or tear in one or more of the three muscles in the back of the thigh. Hamstring strains and tears are one of the most common and painful sports injuries people experience. I'm going to talk about a grade 2 Achilles tendon injury.

Hamstring injuries are often caused by explosive movements while running. If you've torn your hamstring, you'll feel pain in the back of your thigh when you try to straighten your leg, or you'll experience tenderness, swelling, and especially bruising in the affected area.

Now, as a rescuer, if I were to arrive at a crime scene I would look for potential dangers to the client and myself and ask for the game to be stopped. I would ask him if the player/person is okay and ask what he thinks about what happened to him to make sure he is okay because he still responds to me.

If the person has torn their Achilles tendon the healing process will require willpower, the injury can take up to 12 weeks to heal or recover well from a grade 2 Achilles tendon tear. Grade 2 would apply cold compresses on the Achilles tendon for about 15 to 20 minutes every three hours during the day; package to help you.

The next thing he would need to do to recover would be to place a compression bandage on his thigh to limit swelling and movement that could further damage the tendon. You can use a simple elastic bandage or an elastic tube bandage. You should always prop your leg up and as much as possible on a pillow to reduce any swelling you notice, keep your leg as still as possible, and avoid physical activity. If you need to move, you should be advised to use crutches.

After resting for a few weeks, your leg will be back and then light exercise and stretching will be recommended. The thigh muscle shrinks and scar tissue forms around the tear.

After a few weeks, you will be directed to see a therapist and the therapist will apply various massage techniques to your tendon, recommending a comprehensive program that will include stretching, strengthening, and functional exercises.

Strengthening and stretching exercises for a tendon rupture would include:

(Video) OCR CNAT R041 Sport Science - Injuries - Extrinsic Factors

  • Hamstring flexion: You should start on your stomach and try to lower your heel against your therapist's resistance.
  • High Step - Crotch With a high step, you should start in a 90 degree hip position at the crotch.
  • Seated Hamstring Stretch: Sit in a chair and straighten your leg until you feel a gentle stretch in your hamstrings.

There would be psychological considerations because the athlete may not be motivated to do the sport because they may have waited a long time to heal or recover from their injury, some of the athletes may suffer from depression because they will suffer from constant mood swings, they may be sad and angry with themselves or even with another person for having caused this damage.

Some athletes may be trying to get back into the sport as soon as possible because they want to be in the sport as soon as possible that is bad unless they are fully fit again and trying to compete in the sport there is so much potential their injury worse than suffering .

early time:Rehabilitation is gentle exercise that allows damaged tissue to heal. This stage is often rushed and results in poor healing and is prone to re-injury.

Advanced stage:During rehabilitation, muscles/tendons/bones or ligaments are gradually loaded to build tensile strength and produce healed tissue that can withstand the rigors of everyday life and movement.

Abend:- In the final (late) phase of rehabilitation, the tissues are adapted and stressed through exercise and functional training to ensure the body is ready to play again.

Rehabilitation exercises should start as soon as possible (after the initial inflammatory phase – 72 hours) and be done “normally” without pain, with rare exceptions. Be careful with the phrase "no pain, no gain" as in most cases this is not the case. Pain is the body's response to tell it to stop or slow down, and ignoring it makes it harder to heal.

There are some exceptions, such as B. Tendinopathy protocols for the rehabilitation of Achilles and patellar tendon injuries. Before embarking on any such therapy, you should seek the advice of a doctor, as doing it incorrectly can cause more harm than good. It is also important for the athlete to understand the reasons for following a particular treatment plan or training program. The following tips are important to a successful rehabilitation program:

  • Start as soon as possible after the initial inflammatory phase is over (usually 72 hours after injury).
  • Understand why and how you are performing the exercise or treatment.
  • Follow a precise but individual training program.
  • Make the most of the facilities available.

Well, the second injury I'm going to talk about is the athlete's dislocated shoulder. You can dislocate your shoulder from a fall or blow that causes the humerus to protrude from the shoulder socket. Unlike the joints in the body, however, the shoulder joint is very flexible, you can move it in almost any direction; However, there is a high probability that the shoulder will slip out of joint.

Once you have located and reinserted the disc in your shoulder, it usually takes 6-8 weeks to have full arm movement. However, you will need to see a physical therapist for a few weeks to help you move better and repair damaged tissue and nerves. You may have dislocated your shoulder from falling on your shoulder, especially on a hard surface, receiving a blow to the shoulder, or trying to break a fall with your hand.

Symptoms of a dislocated shoulder include:

  • Shoulder and upper arm pain that hurts more when you move the area
  • Shoulder deformity a bulge in front or behind the shoulder depending on how the bone has shifted
  • Symptoms of an amputated shoulder include:
  • Severe pain as soon as the injury occurs.
  • Shoulder and clavicle tenderness
  • swelling
  • hematoma
  • shadow warp

After the shoulder bone has been repositioned, you can use conservative treatment to reduce pain and swelling. To treat the injury you must:

  • Ice your shoulder to reduce pain and swelling. Do this for 20 to 30 minutes every three to four hours for 2 to 3 days or more.
  • Wear a sling or splint to prevent further injury until you seek medical attention, and then follow your doctor's advice about whether or not to use a cane.
  • You should do stretching and strengthening exercises if your doctor recommends them.

Symptoms of an amputated shoulder include:

  • Severe pain as soon as the injury occurs.
  • Shoulder and clavicle tenderness
  • swelling
  • hematoma
  • shadow warp

After the shoulder bone has been repositioned, you can use conservative treatment to reduce pain and swelling. To treat the injury you must:

  • Ice your shoulder to reduce pain and swelling. Do this for 20 to 30 minutes every three to four hours for 2 to 3 days or more.
  • Wear a sling or splint to prevent further injury until you seek medical attention, and then follow your doctor's advice about whether or not to use a cane.
  • You should do stretching and strengthening exercises if your doctor recommends them.

Dislocated shoulder rehabilitation program:

Once the shoulder is in place, the first thing to do is put on a polish. This is done while your shoulder remains comfortable while it tries to heal. You should wear your polish for 2-3 weeks maximum, however if you have broken your shoulder you should wear it for at least 6 weeks.

Pain can occur for as long as 2-3 weeks, so your doctor may give you a prescription to take it or give you some pain relievers like paracetamol. You can also put an ice pack on the sore area to stop the pain being felt there.

You will be asked to see a physical therapist after 2-3 weeks, once there the physical therapist will ask you to do some gentle movements outside of the sling to help reduce stiffness and relieve some of the pain. . It is important not to hold your arm at a 90 degree angle, especially when exerting force.

The first exercises your physical therapist may tell you about are isometric shoulder exercises, stationary isometric means, also known as static contractions. These are exercises that work the muscles without moving the joint and are generally very helpful when the joint is still healing.

Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors for sports injuries (3)

  1. The first exercise is the isometric stretch, that is, standing with your back against a wall and your arms at your sides. While keeping your elbow and wrist straight, push back on the wand and hold for 5 seconds, you can push for 10 seconds if you find it easy, repeat about 5 times.
  2. The second exercise is external rotation: stand next to the door frame, keep your elbow bent at a 90 degree angle and place the back of your hand against the door frame, press on the door frame and hold for 5 seconds if you can find it easily. five seconds, but do this exercise at least 5 times.

The physical therapist may have you do internal rotation. This is the most important exercise because it strengthens the muscles that help prevent an anterior dislocation of the shoulder. In the early stages, however, it is important to keep the shoulder joint within its range of motion.

  1. The first external rotation exercise is called abduction. This involves standing on one end of the band and grabbing the other end while keeping your elbow straight. Pull your arm out to the side so that your hand is at shoulder level.
  2. The second exercise is called the band push-up, hold the other end in the injured person's hand and, keeping your elbow straight, pull your hand out in front of you at shoulder height. Once you are comfortable with the above exercises, the resistance band can be replaced with weights to continue your strengthening exercises.

Rehabilitation program for grade 2 hamstring tears

To begin your rehabilitation program, you should start with hamstring stretches, which would be very light static stretches, and initially progress to more dynamic, sport-specific stretches as the injury heals. Some hamstring loads are closer to the knee and some may be higher up the muscles. Hamstring strengthening is understood as a gradual increase in the load on the muscle. Strength exercises should always be painless. If it hurts, it doesn't help. In the early stages of hamstring rehabilitation, basic static exercises are often performed with resistance from a therapist or partner.

Later in the rehab program, bus rides and time races are included, as one would expect from a professional soccer player. It's important to get this far before a return to competitive play is possible or before re-injury is likely.

Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors for sports injuries (4)

Of course, the first exercises you can do to load your hamstrings are to rest for a while, so you can do the rice method for that, which is rest, ice, compression, and elevations. This is to reduce bleeding and damage to muscle tissue. You can start with the following exercises/stretches as you begin to recover from muscle fiber strain:

  1. Gentle hamstring stretches can begin by sitting on an exercise mat, slowly leaning forward, and sliding your hands down your thighs. The patient must stop when he feels tension when stretching the thigh; The position must be held for thirty seconds and must be done at least three times.
  2. The patient first sits on the mat and pushes the heel down. He must do this 20 times and 3 times a day. If he can do this without pain, he can move to the next position.
  3. The patient lies on his stomach and lowers his heel 20 times and 3 times a day. If he can do this without pain, he can move to the next position.
  4. 5 minutes, then increase in 5 minute increments. As soon as the patient can manage 15 minutes, they should increase to half race pace. Squats can start: repetitions x 20, 3 times a day. They can also start hamstring curls using a resistance weight machine. Everything has to be painless.

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(Video) 'Extrinsic and Intrinsic factors affect ACL injuries' Prof. Martin Schwellnus, UCT Capetown


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